Allah — The Unique Name of God

Research into the Names of God in over 150 Languages and their Meanings

by Maulana Abdul Haq Vidyarthi

Chapter 4: The Name of God in Jewish Scriptures

Is Yahweh the Name of God?

As shocking as it may seem, the answer is not a simple, clear “Yes”. God, the Creator of all things, is the Supreme Ruler of the universe. The usual name given to God by the Hebrews was what has been rendered into English as ‘Jehovah’ in the American Standard Version of the Bible (1901), whereas the older King James Version has the word ‘Lord’ or ‘God’ printed in capitals in its place. The name of God was so revered that it was not generally pronounced, its place being taken by adonay, ‘Lord’, and elohim, ‘God’, both of which are, as a matter of fact, expressions for the attributes of God. As it is said, the name ‘Jehovah’ revealed to Moses at Horeb is the name of the God of Israel. Its real pronunciation, they say, approximates to ‘Yahweh’, but the name might not, according to rabbinical teaching, be pronounced; hence it was written with the vowel points of adonay (‘Lord’) which was substituted for it in reading. The name itself was not pronounced ‘Jehovah’ before the sixteenth century.1

This alternative or substituted name of God came under discussion among the Jews at a time when the correct pronunciation had long been corrupted and vitiated. It is certainly no matter of surprise, for in the Eastern countries it is common to call a man not by his personal name but by the name which has been given to him on account of his profession or some distinctive quality. If such a practice were in vogue in places where personal names also existed, one of God’s attributive names was taken to be His personal name, more so because no personal name had yet been given to God. Although one particular name was regarded as the most excellent, He was more usually invoked through other attributive names; the supposed excellent name having been regarded as highly sacred, to be uttered only by particular persons on special occasions and at special places. Other people could utter it only under the penalty of having their tongues cut off or molten lead poured in their ears, or their hearts torn out or death as among the Hindus.2

In Judaism and Christianity the most excellent name of God is ‘Jehovah’, which occurs 156 times in the book of Genesis and 6,000 times in the whole of the Bible. But both the Jewish and the Christian scholars agree that its pronunciation is not known to anyone for a certainty. When the Bible was first written in Hebrew, the script was free of vowel-points, much in the same way as the Arabic script, the reason being that the people of the tongue did not need them. But, when the question of the propagation of the Holy Quran among non-Arabic-speaking people arose, it was found that they could not read it correctly without accent marks. It was then that the Muslim scholars devised these accents. The Jews similarly thought of devising vowel marks for the Hebrew script. But since the Hebrew language in those days had fallen into disuse among the Jews, differences arose in putting these marks in the case of many a word. Thus difficulty arose in the way of their writing down the name of God: how could they put it down in a book when they held the belief that it was strictly forbidden for people to utter it except by a Chief Rabbi? Therefore, instead of ‘Yehowah’ four letters y-h-w-h were written down without accent marks, and preceding them, or in the margin, was noted down the term adonay to mean that the four letters y-h-w-h together with the vowel points of adonay should be read instead of ‘Yehowah’. It never occurred in the Bible even at a single place without adonay or elohim, so that on reaching the term adonay, it should be immediately understood that the next word is not to be read. This prohibition is not just an ordinary affair: it imposes the penalty of death on one who dares to utter the name of God. Even the Jewish scholars and savants, who are bitterly opposed to the higher criticism of the Bible, take not the name of God, but write ‘Adonai’ in its place.3

The Jewish and the Christian scholars have divided the discussion pertaining to the name ‘Jehovah’ into three parts. The first part of the discussion relates to the pronunciation of this term. Since 1520 AD it had been written as yehowah but read ‘Jehovah’, but now it has become more popular. Before this, different pronunciations existed in different periods of history: (l) ‘Jao’; (2) ‘Jaoth’; (3) ‘Jaou’; (4) ‘Jeuo’; (5) ‘Ja’; (6) ‘Jabe’; (7) ‘Jaho’; (8) ‘Jehjeh’; and (9) the Samaritans pronounced it yabe.4 In the Biblical list of smaller prophets, Joel is the name of the prophet, which means ‘Jo’ is God.

The Significance of ‘Jehovah’:

The next discussion is on the meaning of ‘Jehovah’. According to some scholars, it is in the nominative case, while others say it is an absolute verb. In its meaning also there is a lot of difference. In the nominative case it has been translated as ‘the Creator’ or ‘the Sustainer’. But this meaning is merely imaginary and fanciful, without any rational explanation. It is also inconsistent with what has been stated in Exodus, 3:13–14 and 6:2–3. Moses asked God the Most High:

“When I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they say to me, ‘What is His name?’ what shall I say to them?” (Exodus, 3:13).

And God disclosed His name to him, saying: ehyeh asher ehyeh, is my name, i.e., ‘I am who I am’. But Exodus 6:3 has it as: y-h-w-h, ‘He who is’; and this translation is according to the Greek translation of the Bible: ‘He Who Is has sent me’ and not ‘I Am has sent me’. Thus the name which God revealed to Moses, the third time, was yahweh, ‘He That Is’. This translation, however, has been brought under heavy fire. It is wrong for the reason that this term might have been coined from the Hebrew yihyeh, and its meaning should therefore be ‘He will be’. The second form, ‘Jehu’, which is concise and brief, has been derived from a different root. And the third meaning is said to be ‘the Coming One’, indicating prophecy. This significance is, of course, the most suitable and befitting and in conformity with the rules of Hebrew grammar.

The Jews say that ‘Jehovah’ is a wrong pronunciation which has been invented by the Christian theologians and it has never been accepted and acknowledged by them. This term is in reality a word of four letters, y-h-w-h, and is unpronounceable; in other words, its reading or writing is disallowed and forbidden. The pronunciation proposed by the Christian scholars is wrong and incorrect according to the rules of the Hebraic language. Adonai (adonay) is its substitute; and, whenever this term will be used as the name of God, Adonai will be used instead of it. In the ancient Greek manuscript not this term but kurios has been used, which gives the same meaning as adonay. It is written in the Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia:

JEHOVAH, An erroneous pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, or four-lettered name of God, made up of the Hebrew letters Yod He Vav He (יהוה). According to Bible scholars, the proper pronunciation of this name was Jahveh. As early as Bible times, however, in obedience to the provision of the Third Commandment that forbids taking the name of God in vain, this name was never pronounced except once a year by the high priest on the Day of Atonement in the Temple at Jerusalem. The people, however, never spoke the name at any time; the term Adonai (אֲדֹנָי), meaning Lord, was consistently substituted for Yahveh.”5

In another Jewish encyclopaedia we read:

JEHOVAH: A mispronunciation (introduced by Christian theologians, but almost entirely disregarded by the Jews) of the Hebrew ‘YHWH,’ the (ineffable) name of God (the TETRAGRAMMATON or ‘Shem ha-Meforash’). This pronunciation is grammatically impossible; it arose through pronouncing the vowels of the ‘ḳere’ (marginal reading of the Masorites: = אֲדֹנָי ‘Adonay’) with the consonants of the ‘ketib’ (text-reading: יהוה = ‘YHWH’) — ‘Adonay’ (the Lord) being substituted with one exception, wherever ‘YHWH’ occurs in the Biblical and liturgical books.”6

The well-known Jewish divine Philo has written many a time that this name is unpronounceable, and only such person can hear and utter it within the sacred precincts whose ears and tongue have been purified with divine wisdom, and that any other person who dares to utter it in contravention of these conditions should be prepared to undergo the death penalty, and that one who pronounces it in its real letters shall be at a great loss in the next world. Some Christian padres have tried to articulate it; but their efforts have borne no fruit, for since long its correct pronunciation is unknown. With regard to the truth of this name and its accurate significance, there is a vast difference of opinion, and it is not an easy task to tell its meaning with exactness and precision. The languages of the East have their own mysterious manner, which is incomprehensible and unintelligible to the Western mind. Some take it to be a derivative of the Hebrew root hawah (h-w-y), which means ‘to fall’, as if something has fallen from the sky. Some define its root to be wa, which they interpret to mean ‘to breathe’ and ‘to blow’, and thereby the wind or the god of gales. Yet others are of the opinion that its meaning is ‘to be’, and call it, therefore, the instrumental case. They have probably adopted the right course. It is written in The Catholic Encyclopedia:

“I. PRONUNCIATION OF JEHOVAH. — The Fathers and the Rabbinic writers agree in representing Jehovah as an ineffable name. As to the Fathers, we only need draw attention to the following expressions: ὄνομα ἄῤῥητον, ἄφραστον, ἄλεκτον, ἄφθεγκτον, ἀνεκφώνητον, ἀπόῤῥητον καὶ ῥηθῆναι μὴ δυνάμενον, μύστικον. Leusden could not induce a certain Jew, in spite of his poverty, to pronounce the real name of God, though he held out the most alluring promises. The Jew’s compliance with Leusden’s wishes would not indeed have been of any real advantage to the latter; for the modern Jews are as uncertain of the real pronunciation of the Sacred name as their Christian contemporaries. According to a Rabbinic tradition the real pronunciation of Jehovah ceased to be used at the time of Simeon the Just, who was, according to Maimonides, a contemporary of Alexander the Great. At any rate, it appears that the name was no longer pronounced after the destruction of the Temple. The Mishna refers to our question more than once: Berachoth, ix, 5, allows the use of the Divine name by way of salutation; in Sanhedrin, x, 1, Abba Shaul refuses any share in the future world to those who pronounce it as it is written; according to Thamid, vii, 2, the priests in the Temple (or perhaps in Jerusalem) might employ the true Divine name, while the priests in the country (outside Jerusalem) had to be contented with the name Adonai; according to Maimonides (‘More Neb.’, i, 61, and ‘Yad chasaka’, xiv, 10) the true Divine name was used only by the priests in the sanctuary who imparted the blessing, and by the high-priest on the Day of Atonement. Philo [‘De mut. nom.’, n. 2 (ed. Marg., i, 580); ‘Vita Mos.’, iii, 25 (ii, 166)] seems to maintain that even on these occasions the priests had to speak in a low voice. Thus far we have followed the post-Christian Jewish tradition concerning the attitude of the Jews before Simeon the Just.”7

Noting that ‘Jehovah’ was mistakenly thought to be the correct pronunciation by Christian scholars until relatively recent times, The Catholic Encyclopedia summarises as follows the arguments that were used to explain the form ‘Jehovah’ and the reasons why they are not valid:

“(a) Jehovah is composed of the abbreviated forms of the imperfect, the participle, and the perfect of the Hebrew verb ‘to be’ (ye=yehî,8; hô=howêh; wa=hāwâh). According to this explanation, the meaning of Jehovah would be ‘he who will be, is, and has been’. But such a word-formation has no analogy in the Hebrew language. (b) The abbreviated form Jehô supposes the full form Jehovah. But the form Jehovah cannot account for the abbreviations Jāhû and Jāh, while the abbreviation Jehô may be derived from another word. (c) The Divine name is said to be paraphrased in Apoc., i, 4, and iv, 8, by the expression ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦv καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, in which ὁ ἐρχόμενος is regarded as equivalent to ὁ ἐσόμενος, ‘the one that will be’; but it really means ‘the coming one’, so that after the coming of the Lord, Apoc., xi, 17, retains only ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦv. (d) The comparison of Jehovah with the Latin Jupiter, Jovis. But it wholly neglects the fuller forms of the Latin names Diespiter, Diovis. Any connection of Jehovah with the Egyptian Divine name consisting of the seven vowels ι ε η ω ο υ α, has been rejected by Hengstenberg (Beiträge zur Einleitung ins Alte Testament, II, 204 sqq.) and Tholuck (Vermischte Schriften, I, 349 sqq.).”9

Moses asks the Name of God:

The Catholic Encyclopedia discusses the Divine name further as follows, on the basis of the forms that are found in Greek and Latin sources and in the Samaritan tradition:

“The judicious reader will perceive that the Samaritan pronunciation Jabe probably approaches the real sound of the Divine name closest; the other early writers transmit only abbreviations or corruptions of the sacred name. Inserting the vowels of Jabe into the original Hebrew consonant text, we obtain the form Jahveh (Yahweh), which has been generally accepted by modern scholars as the true pronunciation of the Divine name. It is not merely closely connected with the pronunciation of the ancient synagogue by means of the Samaritan tradition, but it also allows the legitimate derivation of all the abbreviations of the sacred name in the Old Testament.

II. MEANING OF THE DIVINE NAME. — Jahveh (Yahweh) is one of the archaic Hebrew nouns, such as Jacob, Joseph, Israel, etc. (cf. Ewald, Lehrbuch der hebr. Sprache, 7th ed., 1863, p. 664), derived from the third person imperfect in such a way as to attribute to a person or a thing the action of the quality expressed by the verb after the manner of a verbal adjective or a participle. Fürst has collected most of these nouns, and calls the form forma participialis imperfectiva. As the Divine name is an imperfect form of the archaic Hebrew verb ‘to be’, Jahveh means ‘He Who is’, Whose characteristic note consists in being, or The Being simply.

“Here we are confronted with the question, whether Jahveh is the imperfect hiphil or the imperfect qal. Calmet and Le Clerc believe that the Divine name is a hiphil form; hence it signifies, according to Schrader (Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, 2nd ed., p. 25), He Who brings into existence, the Creator; and according to Lagarde (Psalterium Hieronymi, 153), He Who causes to arrive, Who realizes His promises, the God of Providence. But this opinion is not in keeping with Ex., iii, 14, nor is there any trace in Hebrew of a hiphil form of the verb meaning ‘to be’; moreover, this hiphil form is supplied in the cognate languages by the piel form, except in Syriac where the hiphil is rare and of late occurrence.

“On the other hand, Jahveh may be an imperfect qal from a grammatical point of view, and the traditional exegesis of Ex., iii, 6–16, seems to necessitate the form Jahveh. Moses asks God: ‘If they should say to me: What is his [God’s] name? What shall I say to them?’ In reply, God returns three several times to the determination of His name. First, He uses the first person imperfect of the Hebrew verb ‘to be’; here the Vulgate, the Septuagint, Aquila, Theodotion, and the Arabic version suppose that God uses the imperfect qal; only the Targums of Jonathan and of Jerusalem imply the imperfect hiphil. Hence we have the renderings: ‘I am who am’ (Vulg.), ‘I am who is’ (Sept.), ‘I shall be [who] shall be’ (Aquila, Theodotion), ‘the Eternal who does not cease’ (Ar.); only the above-mentioned Targums see any reference to the creation of the world. The second time, God uses again the first person imperfect of the Hebrew verb ‘to be’; here the Syriac, the Samaritan, the Persian versions, and the Targums of Onkelos and Jerusalem retain the Hebrew word, so that one cannot tell whether they regard the imperfect as a qal or a hiphil form; the Arabic version omits the whole clause; but the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Targum of Jonathan suppose here the imperfect qal: ‘He Who Is, hath sent me to you’ instead of ‘I Am, hath sent me to you’ (Vulg.); ‘ὁ ὢν sent me to you’ (Sept.); ‘I am who am, and who shall be, hath sent me to you’ (Targ. Jon.). Finally, the third time, God uses the third person of the imperfect, or the form of the sacred name itself; here the Samaritan version and the Targum of Onkelos retain the Hebrew form; the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Syriac version render ‘Lord’, though, according to the analogy of the former two passages, they should have translated, ‘He Is, the God of your fathers … hath sent me to you’; the Arabic version substitutes ‘God’. Classical exegesis, therefore, regards Jahveh as the imperfect qal of the Hebrew verb ‘to be’.”10

The Vowels of Adonay (Adonai) and Letters of yhwh make the Name of God:

We read in Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible:

(a) The pronunciation ‘Jehovah’ has no pretence to be right. The word11 יהוה acquired such a sacredness that, in reading, the name ’ǎdônāi, ‘lord,’ was substituted for it; hence in MSS and prints the vowels of ’ǎdônāi were attached to the letters יהוה, and ‘Jehovah’ (יְהֹוָה) is a conflate form with the consonants of one word and the vowels of the other. It is not older in date than the time of the Reformation (1520). (b) The contracted forms in which the name appears suggest that the original form of the word was יַהְוֶה‎ yahweh or yahve (a Greek transliteration is ίαβέ). (c) The occurrence of this name or a similar one in Assyr. cannot be regarded as certain. Hommel believes he has discovered in western Shemitic a divine name i, ai, or ya (e.g. I‑zebel, Jezebel), which he considers the original form of the name, the Heb. יהוה being a more modern expansion. The last part of his conjecture at any rate cannot be considered probable. (d) The word being prehistoric, its derivation must remain uncertain. It has been connected with Arab. hawa ‘to blow’ or ‘breathe,’ J″ being the god who is heard in the tempest — the storm-god; or with the hawa, ‘to fall’ (Job 37:6)12, in the causative meaning ‘the prostrator’ — again the lightning-god; or with Heb. hayah (old form hawah), ‘to be’ in causative (‘make to be’), i.e. ‘the creator,’ or fulfiller of his promises; and so on. (e) In Heb. writing of the historical period the name is connected with Heb. hayah ‘to be,’ in the imperf. Now with regard to this verb, first, it does not mean ‘to be’ essentially or ontologically, but phenomenally; and secondly, the impf. has not the sense of a present (‘am’) but of a fut. (‘will be’). In Ex. 3:10 ff, when Moses demurred to go to Egypt, God assured him, saying, כִּי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ (’EHYEH immāk) ‘I will be with thee.’13 When he asked how he should name the God of their fathers to the people, he was told, אֶהְיֶה אֶשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה (’EHYEHăsher ’EHYEH). Again he was bidden say, ‘אֶהְיֶה ’EHYEH hath sent me unto you’; and finally, ‘יהוה YAHWEH, the God of your fathers, has sent me unto you.’ From all this it seems evident that in the view of the writer ’ehyeh and yahweh are the same: that God is ’ehyeh, ‘I will be,’ when speaking of Himself, and yahweh, ‘he will be,’ when spoken of by others. What He will be is left unexpressed — He will be with them, helper, strengthener, deliverer.”14

Jehovah or Yahweh?

Jehovah’s Witnesses attest as follows. In the Foreword to the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures it is stated:

“The greatest indignity that modern translators render to the divine Author of the Holy Scriptures is the omission or the hiding of his peculiar name when it plainly occurs in the Hebrew text thousands of times in the four-letter word (יהוה = YHWH), generally called the ‘tetragrammaton’. Far be it from us, therefore, to return to the practice of the Jewish synagogue after traditional Judaism and sectarianism and superstition had developed in it, or back to the style of the Latin Vulgate, which for a thousand years was the dominant translation of the Bible in western Europe. It followed the synagogue practice of substituting the titles ‘Lord’, ‘the Lord,’ ‘Adonai,’ and ‘God’ for the divine name represented by the tetragrammaton.

“We follow the example of the first translators of the Greek Septuagint, who rendered the sacred name as a name, as shown by the Fouad Inventory No. 266 papyrus fragments of the 2nd century B.C., of the Greek Septuagint on the Book of Deuteronomy …

“Therefore we render the divine name in every case where the four-letter name or tetragrammaton occurs, using the most familiar English form ‘Jehovah’, for the reasons offered in the Foreword of our translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, pages 10–25. In this rendering we have followed the vowel-pointing of the tetragrammaton as found in Ginsburg’s edition of the Hebrew text rather than that of Kittel, who vowel-points the tetragrammaton to read Yehwáh. Especially in the English-speaking world it is the practice in recent decades of this century to hide that outstanding name and to confuse the reader with a substitute title.”15

Quite contrary to the above statement a noticeable number of European translators render the Divine name ‘Yahweh’ as follows:16

  1. The French translation made under the direction of l’Ecole Biblique de Jérusalem uses the form ‘Yahvé’ (1948–).17
  2. The French translation by A. Crampon uses ‘Yahweh’ (1939).18
  3. The French translation by Cardinal Liénart uses ‘Yahweh’ (1951).19
  4. The French translation by Edouard Dhorme (le Père Paul Dhorme des Frères Prêcheurs) uses ‘Iahve’ (1910–1946).20
  5. The French translation by the monks of Maredsous uses ‘Yahweh’ (1949).21
  6. The Spanish translation by Bover and Cantera Burgos uses ‘Yahveh’ (1947).22
  7. The Spanish translation by Nácar Fuster and Colunga uses ‘Yave’ (1944).23
  8. The English Westminster Version of the Sacred Scriptures by C. Lattey, S.J., uses ‘Jehovah’ (1934–).24
  9. The Holy Bible translated by Monsignor Ronald A. Knox (1949) uses ‘Javé’ many times, as at Exodus, 33:19; Psalms, 67:5, 21; 73:18; 82:19; Isaiah, 42:8; 45:5, 6; etc.25
  10. The seventh edition of the Hebrew text by Rudolf Kittel (1951)26 vowel-points it to read ‘Yehwáh’, as this way of writing the Divine Name is supported by the Leningrad Hebrew Codex (B 19A), the Cairo Hebrew codex of the Prophets, and also many of the oldest Hebrew manuscripts. These point יהוה with the vowels of YeYa.27

American Research on ‘Jehovah’:

Its substitute ‘Adonai’ was a heathen god. It is written in The Oxford Cyclopedic Concordance:

Jehovah, the name revealed to Moses at Horeb, is the Name of the God of Israel. Its real pronunciation is approximately Yahweh, but this Name might not, according to Rabbinical teaching, be pronounced: hence it was written with the vowel points of Adonai (Lord), which was substituted for it in reading. The Name itself was not pronounced Jehovah before the l6th century. The meaning of JHVH, as it was written, is probably not ‘I am,’ but ‘I will become;’ thus it appears to contain the promise of a gradual revelation. It is frequently found in composition with proper names, as e.g., Yehô-shua (Joshua), Yehonathan (Jonathan), Eli-yahu (Elijah), Hizki-yahu (Hezekiah) …

“… Adonai is an intensive plural of Adon (= lord), and occurs not seldom in prophecy and poetry as a substitute for JHVH. It was applied by heathen nations to their gods (thus the Phoenician Tammuz has the title Adonis) and is found compounded with JHVH as a proper name (Adoni-yahu = Adonijah).”28

The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Religions says about ‘Jehovah’, the name given to God in the Old Testament:

“… In the Authorised Version it is often translated ‘Lord.’ It consists of the consonants JHVH or JHWH; and amongst the ancient Hebrews it was regarded as ineffable and was not pronounced, so that when they read it in the scriptures they said instead Adonai, ‘lord.’ The vowels from this word — the first A becoming an indistinct E — were inserted by the Hebrew scribes, but what they were originally, and how the word was pronounced, are unknown. Modern scholars incline to the view that it was Jahweh (pronounced Yahweh).”29

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Footnotes:

  1. On the other hand, The Catholic Encyclopedia, Charles G. Herbermann and others, New York, 1913, article ‘Jehovah’, pp. 329–332, traces the written form ‘Jehovah’ back to the 13th century CE and suggests that it may be even older, but it clearly was not in common use before the 16th century CE — Editor.
  2. Gautama Smriti, 12.1; Purva Mimamsa, 1.3.38, 6.1.33.
  3. J. H. Hertz (Chief Rabbi), The Pentateuch and Haftorahs, Oxford University Press, 5 vols, 1929–1936, with reference to Exodus, 6:2, 6, etc.
  4. The Catholic Encyclopedia, edited by Charles G. Herbermann and others, New York, 1913, article ‘Jehovah’, pp. 329–32. (The eight names spelled with initial ‘J’ come from Greek and Latin sources. The ‘j’ in these names is a spelling convention and stands for an original y sound in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. — Editor.)
  5. Isaac Landman (editor), The Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia, New York, Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia Co. Inc., [c. 1948], vol. 6, pp. 54–55.
  6. Isidore Singer (editor), The Jewish Encyclopedia: a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day, prepared … under the direction of Cyrus Adler et al., vol. 7, New York and London, Funk & Wagnalls, [c. 1916], p. 87.
  7. The Catholic Encyclopedia as cited above. (The Greek expressions of the Fathers all signify that the name is not to be uttered, at least outside a given context — Editor.)
  8. The superfluous comma appears in the original — Editor.
  9. The Catholic Encyclopedia, edited by Charles G. Herbermann and others, New York, 1913, article ‘Jehovah’, pp. 329–32.
  10. The Catholic Encyclopedia as cited above.
  11. Hebrew yhwhEditor.
  12. Job, 37:6, “For he saith to the snow, Be thou on [i.e., ‘fall on’] the earth, likewise to the small rain, and to the great rain of his strength” [King James Version]. (New King James Version translates the first part as: “For He says to the snow, ‘Fall on the earth’ ” — Editor.)
  13. “Then the Lord said to him [Moses], ‘… Now therefore go, and I will be with your mouth and teach you what you shall speak.’ But he [Moses] said: ‘Oh, my Lord, send, I pray, some other person.’ Then the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses …” (Exodus, 4:12–14).
  14. James Hastings, (editor), A Dictionary of the Bible, Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, New York, C. Scribner’s Sons, 1906, vol. 2, p. 199. (According to The Catholic Encyclopedia the form ‘Jehovah’ is, in fact, found in sources dating from before 1520, though not widely adopted until the Reformation: see The Catholic Encyclopedia cited above — Editor.)
  15. New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, 5 vols, Brooklyn, N.Y., Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 1953–1960, Foreword, pp. 20–21.
  16. The original source for this list (reproduced here with some amendments) is New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures as cited above and Footnote on Genesis, 2:4. The references in the following footnotes are supplied by the Editors of the present text — Editor.
  17. La Sainte Bible: traduite en français sous la direction de L’Ecole Biblique de Jérusalem, Paris, Les Editions du Cerf , 1955.
  18. A. Crampon (translator), La Sainte Bible (revised 1923 and 1939 by Jules P. N. Touzard et al.), Paris, Tournai [etc.], Société de S. Jean l’Evangéliste, Desclée et cie, 2 vols. in 1, 1939.
  19. La Sainte Bible: nouvelle édition publié sous le patronage de la Ligue catholique de l’Evangile, et la direction de Cardinal Liénart, avec le concours de Henri Renard, Paris, Société Civile d’Etudes et de Publications non Commerciales, 1951.
  20. See L’Ancien Testament: édition publiée sous la direction d’Edouard Dhorme, 2 vols, [Paris], Gallimard, 1956–1959.
  21. La Sainte Bible: version complète d’après les textes originaux par les moines de Maredsous [Maredsous, Belgium], Editions de Maredsous, 1950.
  22. Sagrada Biblia: versión crítica sobre los textos hebreo y griego, Tomo 1, Génesis a sabiduría, translated by José María Bover and Francisco Cantera Burgos, Madrid, Editorial Católica, 1947.
  23. Sagrada Biblia: versión directa de las lenguas originales, translated by Eloíno Nácar Fuster and P. Alberto Colunga, Madrid, 1944.
  24. Cuthbert Lattey, S.J., The Old Testament [Westminster Version of the Sacred Scriptures], London & New York, Longmans, Green, 1934.
  25. The Holy Bible: a translation from the Latin Vulgate in the light of the Hebrew and Greek originals, authorized by the Hierarchy of England and Wales and the Hierarchy of Scotland, translated by Mgr. R. A. Knox, Definitive Edition, London, Burns & Oates, 1955.
  26. Rudolf Kittel, Biblia Hebraica, 7th ed., Stuttgart, Württembergische Bibelanstalt, [1951].
  27. New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, 5 vols, Brooklyn, N.Y., Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 1953–1960, Footnote on Genesis, 2:4.
  28. The Oxford Cyclopedic Concordance, New York and London, Oxford University Press, [c. 1903], p. 133.
  29. E. Royston Pike, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Religions, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1951, p. 207.

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