English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 2: Al-Baqarah — The Cow (Revealed at Madinah: 40 sections, 286 verses)
Section 12 (Verses 2:97–2:103): Their Enmity to the Prophet
قُلۡ مَنۡ کَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبۡرِیۡلَ فَاِنَّہٗ نَزَّلَہٗ عَلٰی قَلۡبِکَ بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ وَ ہُدًی وَّ بُشۡرٰی لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۹۷﴾
2:97 Say: Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel1 — for surely he revealed it to your heart by Allah’s command, verifying what is (already) before it and a guidance and glad tidings for the believers.
مَنۡ کَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلّٰہِ وَ مَلٰٓئِکَتِہٖ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ جِبۡرِیۡلَ وَ مِیۡکٰىلَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۹۸﴾
2:98 Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and His messengers and Gabriel and Michael, then surely Allah is an enemy to disbelievers.2
وَ لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ اٰیٰتٍۭ بَیِّنٰتٍ ۚ وَ مَا یَکۡفُرُ بِہَاۤ اِلَّا الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾
2:99 And We indeed have revealed to you clear messages, and none disbelieve in them except the transgressors.
اَوَ کُلَّمَا عٰہَدُوۡا عَہۡدًا نَّبَذَہٗ فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۰﴾
2:100 Is it that whenever they make a covenant, some of them cast it aside? No, most of them have no faith.
وَ لَمَّا جَآءَہُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَہُمۡ نَبَذَ فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ ٭ۙ کِتٰبَ اللّٰہِ وَرَآءَ ظُہُوۡرِہِمۡ کَاَنَّہُمۡ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۱﴾۫
2:101 And when a messenger from Allah came to them verifying what they (already) have, some of those who were given the Book threw the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they knew nothing.3
وَ اتَّبَعُوۡا مَا تَتۡلُوا الشَّیٰطِیۡنُ عَلٰی مُلۡکِ سُلَیۡمٰنَ ۚ وَ مَا کَفَرَ سُلَیۡمٰنُ وَ لٰکِنَّ الشَّیٰطِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا یُعَلِّمُوۡنَ النَّاسَ السِّحۡرَ ٭ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَی الۡمَلَکَیۡنِ بِبَابِلَ ہَارُوۡتَ وَ مَارُوۡتَ ؕ وَ مَا یُعَلِّمٰنِ مِنۡ اَحَدٍ حَتّٰی یَقُوۡلَاۤ اِنَّمَا نَحۡنُ فِتۡنَۃٌ فَلَا تَکۡفُرۡ ؕ فَیَتَعَلَّمُوۡنَ مِنۡہُمَا مَا یُفَرِّقُوۡنَ بِہٖ بَیۡنَ الۡمَرۡءِ وَ زَوۡجِہٖ ؕ وَ مَا ہُمۡ بِضَآرِّیۡنَ بِہٖ مِنۡ اَحَدٍ اِلَّا بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ یَتَعَلَّمُوۡنَ مَا یَضُرُّہُمۡ وَ لَا یَنۡفَعُہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَقَدۡ عَلِمُوۡا لَمَنِ اشۡتَرٰىہُ مَا لَہٗ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ مِنۡ خَلَاقٍ ۟ؕ وَ لَبِئۡسَ مَا شَرَوۡا بِہٖۤ اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ ؕ لَوۡ کَانُوۡا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۲﴾
2:102 And they follow what the devils fabricated against the kingdom of Solomon.4 And Solomon did not disbelieve, but the devils disbelieved, teaching people enchantment.5 And it was not revealed to the two angels in Babel — Hārūt and Mārūt. Nor did they teach (it to) anyone, so that they should have said, We are only a trial, so do not disbelieve. But they learn from these two (sources) that by which they make a distinction between a man and his wife. And they cannot hurt with it anyone except with Allah’s permission. And they learn that which harms them and does not benefit them. And certainly they know that he who buys it has no share of good in the Hereafter.6 And surely evil is the price for which they have sold their souls; if only they knew!
وَ لَوۡ اَنَّہُمۡ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ اتَّقَوۡا لَمَثُوۡبَۃٌ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ خَیۡرٌ ؕ لَوۡ کَانُوۡا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۳﴾٪
2:103 And if they had believed and kept their duty, reward from Allah would certainly have been better; if only they knew!
- The Jews looked upon Gabriel as their enemy because he was considered to be an avenging angel who brought down Divine punishment upon the guilty. But in the Bible, as in the Holy Quran, Gabriel is mentioned as delivering Divine messages to men, as in Daniel 8:16 and in Luke 1:19 and 26. ↩
- Man’s enmity to Allah signifies opposition to His commandments, and Allah’s enmity to man signifies the recompense for his opposition. Note that Allah is here said to be an enemy to those disbelievers only who first make themselves enemies to His prophets, and hence also to the Divine Being Himself. ↩
- The covenant referred to in v. 100 as being cast aside, and the throwing of the Book behind their backs, both refer to the Israelites paying no heed to the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:18, which was verified by the advent of the Holy Prophet. ↩
- According to an interpretation accepted by all commentators, by the devils here are meant human devils, or devils in the form of people. ↩
- The Arabic word siḥr (“enchantment”) signifies ‘the producing of what is false in the form of truth’, and ‘embellishment by falsification and deceit’. ↩
- What the Quran says here is that the Jews, instead of following the word of God, followed certain evil crafts which they falsely attributed to Solomon and to two angels at Babel (Hārūt and Mārūt). Solomon is declared free of any such sinfulness attributed to him, and the story of the two angels is declared to be a fabrication. But the Jews are blamed for learning from these two sources, i.e., by their fabrications against Solomon and the story of the two angels, things by which they made a distinction between a man and his wife. These words refer to secret gatherings of the nature of masonic societies, for it is in freemasonry and in no other religious society of the world that women are totally excluded. The words, they cannot hurt with it anyone except with Allah’s permission, show that by this craft they intended to inflict some injury on the Holy Prophet. ↩