English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 30: Ar-Rum — The Romans (Revealed at Makkah: 6 sections, 60 verses)
Section 4 (Verses 30:28–30:40): Appeal to Human Nature
ضَرَبَ لَکُمۡ مَّثَلًا مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ ؕ ہَلۡ لَّکُمۡ مِّنۡ مَّا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ مِّنۡ شُرَکَآءَ فِیۡ مَا رَزَقۡنٰکُمۡ فَاَنۡتُمۡ فِیۡہِ سَوَآءٌ تَخَافُوۡنَہُمۡ کَخِیۡفَتِکُمۡ اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ نُفَصِّلُ الۡاٰیٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۲۸﴾
30:28 He sets forth to you a parable about yourselves. Do you have, among those whom your right hands possess, partners in what We have given you, so that you are equal in it, you fearing them as you fear each other?1 Thus do We make the messages clear for a people who understand.
بَلِ اتَّبَعَ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡۤا اَہۡوَآءَہُمۡ بِغَیۡرِ عِلۡمٍ ۚ فَمَنۡ یَّہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ اَضَلَّ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ مَا لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ نّٰصِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾
30:29 But those who are unjust follow their low desires without any knowledge; so who can guide him whom Allah leaves in error? And they shall have no helpers.
فَاَقِمۡ وَجۡہَکَ لِلدِّیۡنِ حَنِیۡفًا ؕ فِطۡرَتَ اللّٰہِ الَّتِیۡ فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَیۡہَا ؕ لَا تَبۡدِیۡلَ لِخَلۡقِ اللّٰہِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ الدِّیۡنُ الۡقَیِّمُ ٭ۙ وَ لٰکِنَّ اَکۡثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿٭ۙ۳۰﴾
30:30 So set yourself for religion, being upright, the nature made by Allah in which He has created mankind. There is no altering Allah’s creation. That is the right religion — but most people do not know2 —
مُنِیۡبِیۡنَ اِلَیۡہِ وَ اتَّقُوۡہُ وَ اَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ لَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۱﴾
30:31 turning to Him; and keep your duty to Him, and keep up prayer and do not be of those who set up partners (with Allah),
مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ فَرَّقُوۡا دِیۡنَہُمۡ وَ کَانُوۡا شِیَعًا ؕ کُلُّ حِزۡبٍۭ بِمَا لَدَیۡہِمۡ فَرِحُوۡنَ ﴿۳۲﴾
30:32 of those who split up their religion and become sects; each faction rejoicing in what it has.
وَ اِذَا مَسَّ النَّاسَ ضُرٌّ دَعَوۡا رَبَّہُمۡ مُّنِیۡبِیۡنَ اِلَیۡہِ ثُمَّ اِذَاۤ اَذَاقَہُمۡ مِّنۡہُ رَحۡمَۃً اِذَا فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ بِرَبِّہِمۡ یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۳﴾
30:33 And when harm afflicts people, they call upon their Lord, turning to Him, then when He makes them taste of mercy from Him, lo! some of them begin to set up partners with their Lord,
لِیَکۡفُرُوۡا بِمَاۤ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمۡ ؕ فَتَمَتَّعُوۡا ٝ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۳۴﴾
30:34 so as to be ungrateful for what We have given them. So enjoy yourselves a while — you will soon come to know.
اَمۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ سُلۡطٰنًا فَہُوَ یَتَکَلَّمُ بِمَا کَانُوۡا بِہٖ یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۳۵﴾
30:35 Or, have We sent to them an authority so that it speaks of what they set up as partners with Him?3
وَ اِذَاۤ اَذَقۡنَا النَّاسَ رَحۡمَۃً فَرِحُوۡا بِہَا ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُصِبۡہُمۡ سَیِّئَۃٌۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ اِذَا ہُمۡ یَقۡنَطُوۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾
30:36 And when We make people taste of mercy they rejoice in it, and if an evil befall them for what their hands have already done, lo! they despair.
اَوَ لَمۡ یَرَوۡا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یَبۡسُطُ الرِّزۡقَ لِمَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَقۡدِرُ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۳۷﴾
30:37 Do they not see that Allah amplifies provision for whom He pleases, and restricts (it also)? Certainly there are signs in this for a people who believe.
فَاٰتِ ذَاالۡقُرۡبٰی حَقَّہٗ وَ الۡمِسۡکِیۡنَ وَ ابۡنَالسَّبِیۡلِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ خَیۡرٌ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ وَجۡہَ اللّٰہِ ۫ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۳۸﴾
30:38 So give to the near of kin his due, and to the needy and the traveller. This is best for those who desire Allah’s pleasure, and these it is who are successful.4
وَ مَاۤ اٰتَیۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ رِّبًا لِّیَرۡبُوَا۠ فِیۡۤ اَمۡوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا یَرۡبُوۡا عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ مَاۤ اٰتَیۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ زَکٰوۃٍ تُرِیۡدُوۡنَ وَجۡہَ اللّٰہِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُضۡعِفُوۡنَ ﴿۳۹﴾
30:39 And whatever you lay out at usury, so that it may increase through the property of (other) people, it does not increase with Allah; and whatever you give in charity, desiring Allah’s pleasure — these will get manifold.5
اَللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَکُمۡ ثُمَّ رَزَقَکُمۡ ثُمَّ یُمِیۡتُکُمۡ ثُمَّ یُحۡیِیۡکُمۡ ؕ ہَلۡ مِنۡ شُرَکَآئِکُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّفۡعَلُ مِنۡ ذٰلِکُمۡ مِّنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ سُبۡحٰنَہٗ وَ تَعٰلٰی عَمَّا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿٪۴۰﴾
30:40 Allah is He Who created you, then He sustains you, then He causes you to die, then brings you to life. Is there any of your associate-gods who does any of it? Glory be to Him, and supremely exalted is He above what they set up as partners (with Him)!
- The owner and the owned are not equal. So the objects which they worshipped from among God’s creation cannot be equal to the Creator, Who is the Intelligent Cause and Controller of all. ↩
- Islam according to this verse is the natural religion of mankind, or a religion to the truth of which human nature bears testimony. Its fundamental principles, the Unity and all-comprehensive providence of Allah, the universality of Divine revelation, and the accountability for all actions in a life after death, are recognized by all religions and all nations, and their universal acceptance is a clear evidence that it is the very nature of man that bears testimony to their truth. Islam removes all limitations upon these three fundamental doctrines of the religion of humanity, and gives them as wide a significance as humanity itself. The other fundamental principle of the natural religion of man is mentioned in v. 38. ↩
- No prophet can be shown to have received a revelation setting up creatures on an equal or co-operative plane with the Creator. Every such doctrine, besides being against the testimony of human nature and reason, stands condemned because of the absence of any revelation in its support. ↩
- Charity to fellow man is the practical outcome of the doctrine of the brotherhood of humanity, which is one of the two principles of the natural religion of mankind. ↩
- This verse lays stress upon the doctrine of charity to one’s fellow-man. It says that some people seek to increase their wealth by means of getting interest on money, i.e., they seek an increase of their wealth at the expense of other people’s property; but that a Muslim should seek an increase of his wealth by giving it, for the sake of Allah, to help his fellow-man. ↩