English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 33: Al-Ahzab — The Allies (Revealed at Makkah: 9 sections, 73 verses)
Section 7 (Verses 33:53–33:58): Rules of Conduct in Domestic Relations
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَدۡخُلُوۡا بُیُوۡتَ النَّبِیِّ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یُّؤۡذَنَ لَکُمۡ اِلٰی طَعَامٍ غَیۡرَ نٰظِرِیۡنَ اِنٰىہُ ۙ وَ لٰکِنۡ اِذَا دُعِیۡتُمۡ فَادۡخُلُوۡا فَاِذَا طَعِمۡتُمۡ فَانۡتَشِرُوۡا وَ لَا مُسۡتَاۡنِسِیۡنَ لِحَدِیۡثٍ ؕ اِنَّ ذٰلِکُمۡ کَانَ یُؤۡذِی النَّبِیَّ فَیَسۡتَحۡیٖ مِنۡکُمۡ ۫ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَسۡتَحۡیٖ مِنَ الۡحَقِّ ؕ وَ اِذَا سَاَلۡتُمُوۡہُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَسۡـَٔلُوۡہُنَّ مِنۡ وَّرَآءِ حِجَابٍ ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ اَطۡہَرُ لِقُلُوۡبِکُمۡ وَ قُلُوۡبِہِنَّ ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ لَکُمۡ اَنۡ تُؤۡذُوۡا رَسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ وَ لَاۤ اَنۡ تَنۡکِحُوۡۤا اَزۡوَاجَہٗ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖۤ اَبَدًا ؕ اِنَّ ذٰلِکُمۡ کَانَ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۵۳﴾
33:53 O you who believe, do not enter the houses of the Prophet unless permission is given to you for a meal, not waiting for its cooking to be finished — but when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken food, disperse — not seeking to listen to talk. Surely this gives the Prophet trouble, but he forbears from you, and Allah does not forbear from the truth. And when you ask of them any goods, ask of them from behind a curtain. This is purer for your hearts and their hearts.1 And it is not fitting for you to give trouble to the Messenger of Allah, nor to marry his wives after him ever.2 Surely this is grievous in the sight of Allah.
اِنۡ تُبۡدُوۡا شَیۡئًا اَوۡ تُخۡفُوۡہُ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۵۴﴾
33:54 If you do a thing openly or do it in secret, then surely Allah is ever Knower of all things.
لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَیۡہِنَّ فِیۡۤ اٰبَآئِہِنَّ وَ لَاۤ اَبۡنَآئِہِنَّ وَ لَاۤ اِخۡوَانِہِنَّ وَ لَاۤ اَبۡنَآءِ اِخۡوَانِہِنَّ وَ لَاۤ اَبۡنَآءِ اَخَوٰتِہِنَّ وَ لَا نِسَآئِہِنَّ وَ لَا مَا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُہُنَّ ۚ وَ اتَّقِیۡنَ اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿۵۵﴾
33:55 There is no blame on them in respect of their fathers, nor their sons, nor their brothers, nor their brothers’ sons, nor their sisters’ sons, nor their own women, nor of what their right hands possess — and (O you women) keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is ever Witness over all things.
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ وَ مَلٰٓئِکَتَہٗ یُصَلُّوۡنَ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ ؕ یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا صَلُّوۡا عَلَیۡہِ وَ سَلِّمُوۡا تَسۡلِیۡمًا ﴿۵۶﴾
33:56 Surely Allah and His angels bless the Prophet. O you who believe, call for blessings on him and salute him with a (becoming) salutation.3
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ لَعَنَہُمُ اللّٰہُ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ وَ اَعَدَّ لَہُمۡ عَذَابًا مُّہِیۡنًا ﴿۵۷﴾
33:57 Surely those who malign Allah and His Messenger,4 Allah has cursed them in this world and the Hereafter, and He has prepared for them a humiliating punishment.
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُؤۡذُوۡنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ بِغَیۡرِ مَا اکۡتَسَبُوۡا فَقَدِ احۡتَمَلُوۡا بُہۡتَانًا وَّ اِثۡمًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿٪۵۸﴾
33:58 And those who malign believing men and believing women undeservedly, they bear the guilt of slander and manifest sin.
- Any rule of conduct to be observed in relation to the Holy Prophet is really a rule that must be observed in all social relations. The Quran teaches not only high morals, but also good manners, for it is meant for everyone. In this verse it disparages the custom of giving trouble to the owner of a house who invites his friends to a dinner by coming before the appointed time or staying after dinner to indulge in idle talk. This is a rule which the Muslims were desired to observe towards one another as well as towards the Holy Prophet. ↩
- The respect due to the Prophet is alone a sufficient reason for the injunction, but a little consideration will show that the absence of the injunction would have led to difficulties. One of the objects which the Prophet’s marriages served was the faithful communication of incidents that play an important part in the life of a man, but whose knowledge is only limited to a man’s family circle. The remarriage of any of the Prophet’s widows would have surely impaired this object to a great degree, as it would have had a possible effect upon the independence of opinion of the lady who entered into marital obligations with another man. ↩
- The invocation of Divine blessings on the Holy Prophet is mentioned in connection with the false imputations against him as regards his marital relations, the implication being that all such imputations would be brought to naught by the blessings which Allah would shower on him, showing that he is pure and holds communion with the fountain-head of purity. ↩
- The word translated as “malign” is from the root adha and it refers here to the false imputations of the disbelievers and the hypocrites against the Holy Prophet. This sense of the word is made clear in the next verse, where the same word is used about the believers, and is explained at the end of the verse as indicating a false accusation against them. ↩