English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 38: Sad — Sad (Revealed at Makkah: 5 sections, 88 verses)
Section 2 (Verses 38:15–38:26): David’s Enemies
وَ مَا یَنۡظُرُ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ اِلَّا صَیۡحَۃً وَّاحِدَۃً مَّا لَہَا مِنۡ فَوَاقٍ ﴿۱۵﴾
وَ قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا عَجِّلۡ لَّنَا قِطَّنَا قَبۡلَ یَوۡمِ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿۱۶﴾
38:16 And they say: Our Lord, hasten on for us our portion (of punishment) before the day of Reckoning.1
اِصۡبِرۡ عَلٰی مَا یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ وَ اذۡکُرۡ عَبۡدَنَا دَاوٗدَ ذَا الۡاَیۡدِ ۚ اِنَّہٗۤ اَوَّابٌ ﴿۱۷﴾
38:17 Bear patiently what they say, and remember Our servant David, the possessor of power. He ever turned (to Allah).
اِنَّا سَخَّرۡنَا الۡجِبَالَ مَعَہٗ یُسَبِّحۡنَ بِالۡعَشِیِّ وَ الۡاِشۡرَاقِ ﴿ۙ۱۸﴾
38:18 Truly We made the mountains subject to him, glorifying (Allah) at nightfall and sunrise,2
وَ الطَّیۡرَ مَحۡشُوۡرَۃً ؕ کُلٌّ لَّہٗۤ اَوَّابٌ ﴿۱۹﴾
38:19 and the birds gathered together. All were obedient to him.
وَ شَدَدۡنَا مُلۡکَہٗ وَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ وَ فَصۡلَ الۡخِطَابِ ﴿۲۰﴾
38:20 And We strengthened his kingdom and We gave him wisdom and a clear judgment.
وَ ہَلۡ اَتٰىکَ نَبَؤُا الۡخَصۡمِ ۘ اِذۡ تَسَوَّرُوا الۡمِحۡرَابَ ﴿ۙ۲۱﴾
38:21 And has the story of the adversaries come to you? When they made an entry into the private chamber by climbing the wall —
اِذۡ دَخَلُوۡا عَلٰی دَاوٗدَ فَفَزِعَ مِنۡہُمۡ قَالُوۡا لَا تَخَفۡ ۚ خَصۡمٰنِ بَغٰی بَعۡضُنَا عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ فَاحۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَنَا بِالۡحَقِّ وَ لَا تُشۡطِطۡ وَ اہۡدِنَاۤ اِلٰی سَوَآءِ الصِّرَاطِ ﴿۲۲﴾
38:22 when they came upon David so he was afraid of them. They said: Do not fear; (we are) two litigants, one of whom has wronged the other, so decide between us with justice, and do not act unjustly, and guide us to the right way.
اِنَّ ہٰذَاۤ اَخِیۡ ۟ لَہٗ تِسۡعٌ وَّ تِسۡعُوۡنَ نَعۡجَۃً وَّ لِیَ نَعۡجَۃٌ وَّاحِدَۃٌ ۟ فَقَالَ اَکۡفِلۡنِیۡہَا وَ عَزَّنِیۡ فِی الۡخِطَابِ ﴿۲۳﴾
38:23 This is my brother. He has ninety-nine ewes and I have a single ewe. Then he said, Make it over to me, and he has prevailed against me in dispute.
قَالَ لَقَدۡ ظَلَمَکَ بِسُؤَالِ نَعۡجَتِکَ اِلٰی نِعَاجِہٖ ؕ وَ اِنَّ کَثِیۡرًا مِّنَ الۡخُلَطَآءِ لَیَبۡغِیۡ بَعۡضُہُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ وَ قَلِیۡلٌ مَّا ہُمۡ ؕ وَ ظَنَّ دَاوٗدُ اَنَّمَا فَتَنّٰہُ فَاسۡتَغۡفَرَ رَبَّہٗ وَ خَرَّ رَاکِعًا وَّ اَنَابَ ﴿ٛ۲۴﴾
38:24 He said: Surely he has wronged you in demanding your ewe (to add) to his own ewes. And surely many partners wrong one another except those who believe and do good, and very few are they! And David knew that We had tried him, so he asked his Lord for protection, and he fell down bowing and turned (to God).3 Prostration
فَغَفَرۡنَا لَہٗ ذٰلِکَ ؕ وَ اِنَّ لَہٗ عِنۡدَنَا لَزُلۡفٰی وَ حُسۡنَ مَاٰبٍ ﴿۲۵﴾
38:25 So We gave him this protection, and surely he had a nearness to Us and an excellent destination.
یٰدَاوٗدُ اِنَّا جَعَلۡنٰکَ خَلِیۡفَۃً فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَاحۡکُمۡ بَیۡنَ النَّاسِ بِالۡحَقِّ وَ لَا تَتَّبِعِ الۡہَوٰی فَیُضِلَّکَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَضِلُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ شَدِیۡدٌۢ بِمَا نَسُوۡا یَوۡمَ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿٪۲۶﴾
38:26 O David, surely We have made you a ruler in the land; so judge between people justly, and do not follow desire that it should lead you astray from the path of Allah. Those who go astray from the path of Allah, for them is surely a severe punishment because they forgot the day of Reckoning.
- It is clearly a demand on the part of disbelievers for punishment in this life; they were again and again told that their doom was coming, and they wanted it to come immediately. ↩
- See 34:10 footnote 1. ↩
- The men who thus attacked David by climbing over the wall were his enemies, as the Quran plainly states. They had thought of taking David unawares and putting him to death. But David, though terrified, was ready to meet them, and the two men, finding their plan thus frustrated, made an excuse for coming to him in such an unusual manner. The story of David committing adultery and two angels having come to him thus to remind him of the sin is a puerile falsehood, wherever it may be found. The word “protection” in this verse and the next by no means indicates that David had committed a sin, as the original word (istighfār, ghafr) really signifies the seeking of protection from sin. David sought Divine protection when he saw that his enemies had grown so bold against him. (Editor’s Note: This dispute is also illustrative of the desire of large and powerful organizations to bring small ones under their sway. The Quran here supports the judgment given in favour of the rights of ownership of the weak against the strong.) ↩