English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 4: Al-Nisa — Women (Revealed at Madinah: 24 sections, 176 verses)
Section 13 (Verses 4:92–4:96): Murderer of a Muslim
وَ مَا کَانَ لِمُؤۡمِنٍ اَنۡ یَّقۡتُلَ مُؤۡمِنًا اِلَّا خَطَـًٔا ۚ وَ مَنۡ قَتَلَ مُؤۡمِنًا خَطَـًٔا فَتَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ مُّؤۡمِنَۃٍ وَّ دِیَۃٌ مُّسَلَّمَۃٌ اِلٰۤی اَہۡلِہٖۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّصَّدَّقُوۡا ؕ فَاِنۡ کَانَ مِنۡ قَوۡمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّکُمۡ وَ ہُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَتَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ مُّؤۡمِنَۃٍ ؕ وَ اِنۡ کَانَ مِنۡ قَوۡمٍۭ بَیۡنَکُمۡ وَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ مِّیۡثَاقٌ فَدِیَۃٌ مُّسَلَّمَۃٌ اِلٰۤی اَہۡلِہٖ وَ تَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ مُّؤۡمِنَۃٍ ۚ فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجِدۡ فَصِیَامُ شَہۡرَیۡنِ مُتَتَابِعَیۡنِ ۫ تَوۡبَۃً مِّنَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۹۲﴾
4:92 And a believer would not kill a believer except by mistake.1 And he who kills a believer by mistake should free a believing slave, and blood-money should be paid to his people unless they forgo it as charity. But if he is from a tribe hostile to you and he is a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is sufficient). And if he is from a tribe between whom and you there is a covenant, the blood-money should be paid to his people along with the freeing of a believing slave; but he who has not the means should fast for two months successively: a penance from Allah. And Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.
وَ مَنۡ یَّقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَآؤُہٗ جَہَنَّمُ خٰلِدًا فِیۡہَا وَ غَضِبَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِ وَ لَعَنَہٗ وَ اَعَدَّ لَہٗ عَذَابًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۹۳﴾
4:93 And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell, abiding in it; and Allah is furious with him and He has cursed him and prepared for him a grievous punishment.2
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ فَتَبَیَّنُوۡا وَ لَا تَقُوۡلُوۡا لِمَنۡ اَلۡقٰۤی اِلَیۡکُمُ السَّلٰمَ لَسۡتَ مُؤۡمِنًا ۚ تَبۡتَغُوۡنَ عَرَضَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ۫ فَعِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ مَغَانِمُ کَثِیۡرَۃٌ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ کُنۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ قَبۡلُ فَمَنَّ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فَتَبَیَّنُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۹۴﴾
4:94 O you who believe, when you go forth (to fight) in Allah’s way, make investigation, and do not say to anyone who offers you salutation, You are not a believer, seeking the good of this world’s life.3 But with Allah there are abundant gains. You too were such before, then Allah conferred a benefit on you; so make investigation. Surely Allah is ever Aware of what you do.
لَا یَسۡتَوِی الۡقٰعِدُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ غَیۡرُ اُولِی الضَّرَرِ وَ الۡمُجٰہِدُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ؕ فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ عَلَی الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ دَرَجَۃً ؕ وَ کُلًّا وَّعَدَ اللّٰہُ الۡحُسۡنٰی ؕ وَ فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ عَلَی الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿ۙ۹۵﴾
4:95 Those who hold back from among the believers, not disabled by injury, and those who strive hard in Allah’s way with their property and their persons, are not equal. Allah has made those who strive with their property and their persons to excel those who hold back by a (high) degree. And to each Allah has promised good. And Allah has granted to those who strive above those who hold back a mighty reward —
دَرَجٰتٍ مِّنۡہُ وَ مَغۡفِرَۃً وَّ رَحۡمَۃً ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿٪۹۶﴾
4:96 (high) degrees from Him and protection and mercy. And Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.
- The man who killed a believer intentionally could not be a believer. Disbelievers often made use of ruses, professing belief in Islam and thus tempting Muslims to go over to them as religious teachers, and afterwards murdering them. ↩
- The commentators are agreed that this verse speaks of a disbeliever who murders a believer. In fact, the word intentionally stands here for murdering a man because he is a believer, as this was what the disbelievers often did. ↩
- The original word for salutation is salām (meaning peace). The first word of the Muslim salutation stands therefore for the Muslim salutation. The Muslims were surrounded by enemies on all sides, yet they were told not to presume that every Arab tribe belonged to the enemy camp but were to make an investigation first. Even when a man belonging to an enemy tribe offered the Muslim salutation, to show that he was a Muslim, he was to be taken as a brother Muslim and could not be dealt with as an enemy. Incidentally, it lays down the principle that no Muslim can be called a kāfir, not even the man whose claim to Islam is borne out only by offering the Muslim salutation. ↩