English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 59: Al-Hashr — The Banishment (Revealed at Madinah: 3 sections, 24 verses)
Section 1 (Verses 59:1–59:10): The Exiled Jews
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
سَبَّحَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ ہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿۱﴾
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَخۡرَجَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡکِتٰبِ مِنۡ دِیَارِہِمۡ لِاَوَّلِ الۡحَشۡرِ ؕؔ مَا ظَنَنۡتُمۡ اَنۡ یَّخۡرُجُوۡا وَ ظَنُّوۡۤا اَنَّہُمۡ مَّانِعَتُہُمۡ حُصُوۡنُہُمۡ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ فَاَتٰىہُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ حَیۡثُ لَمۡ یَحۡتَسِبُوۡا ٭ وَ قَذَفَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمُ الرُّعۡبَ یُخۡرِبُوۡنَ بُیُوۡتَہُمۡ بِاَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ اَیۡدِی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ٭ فَاعۡتَبِرُوۡا یٰۤاُولِی الۡاَبۡصَارِ ﴿۲﴾
59:2 He it is Who caused those who disbelieved from among the People of the Book to go forth from their homes at the first banishment. You did not think that they would go forth, while they thought that their fortresses would defend them against Allah. But Allah came to them from a place they did not expect and cast terror into their hearts — they demolished their houses with their own hands and the hands of the believers. So take a lesson, O you who have eyes!1
وَ لَوۡ لَاۤ اَنۡ کَتَبَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِمُ الۡجَلَآءَ لَعَذَّبَہُمۡ فِی الدُّنۡیَا ؕ وَ لَہُمۡ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ عَذَابُ النَّارِ ﴿۳﴾
59:3 And if Allah had not decreed for them the exile, He would certainly have punished them in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is the punishment of the Fire.
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ شَآقُّوا اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یُّشَآقِّ اللّٰہَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ﴿۴﴾
59:4 That is because they were opposed to Allah and His Messenger, and whoever is opposed to Allah, surely Allah is Severe in retribution.
مَا قَطَعۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ لِّیۡنَۃٍ اَوۡ تَرَکۡتُمُوۡہَا قَآئِمَۃً عَلٰۤی اُصُوۡلِہَا فَبِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ لِیُخۡزِیَ الۡفٰسِقِیۡنَ ﴿۵﴾
59:5 Whatever palm-tree you cut down or leave it standing upon its roots, it is by Allah’s permission, and that He may disgrace the transgressors.
وَ مَاۤ اَفَآءَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ مِنۡہُمۡ فَمَاۤ اَوۡجَفۡتُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ مِنۡ خَیۡلٍ وَّ لَا رِکَابٍ وَّ لٰکِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَہٗ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۶﴾
59:6 And whatever Allah restored to His Messenger from them, you did not press forward against it any horse or any riding-camel, but Allah gives authority to His messengers against whom He pleases. And Allah is Powerful over all things.
مَاۤ اَفَآءَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ مِنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡقُرٰی فَلِلّٰہِ وَ لِلرَّسُوۡلِ وَ لِذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡیَتٰمٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ ابۡنِ السَّبِیۡلِ ۙ کَیۡ لَا یَکُوۡنَ دُوۡلَۃًۢ بَیۡنَ الۡاَغۡنِیَآءِ مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اٰتٰىکُمُ الرَّسُوۡلُ فَخُذُوۡہُ ٭ وَ مَا نَہٰىکُمۡ عَنۡہُ فَانۡتَہُوۡا ۚ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ۘ﴿۷﴾
59:7 Whatever Allah restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the traveller, so that it is not taken by turns by the rich among you.2 And whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and whatever he forbids you, abstain (from it); and keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is Severe in retribution.
لِلۡفُقَرَآءِ الۡمُہٰجِرِیۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُخۡرِجُوۡا مِنۡ دِیَارِہِمۡ وَ اَمۡوَالِہِمۡ یَبۡتَغُوۡنَ فَضۡلًا مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رِضۡوَانًا وَّ یَنۡصُرُوۡنَ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الصّٰدِقُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۸﴾
59:8 (It is) for the poor who fled, who were driven from their homes and their possessions, seeking grace of Allah and (His) pleasure, and helping Allah and His Messenger. These it is that are the truthful.3
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ تَبَوَّؤُ الدَّارَ وَ الۡاِیۡمَانَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ یُحِبُّوۡنَ مَنۡ ہَاجَرَ اِلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ فِیۡ صُدُوۡرِہِمۡ حَاجَۃً مِّمَّاۤ اُوۡتُوۡا وَ یُؤۡثِرُوۡنَ عَلٰۤی اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ وَ لَوۡ کَانَ بِہِمۡ خَصَاصَۃٌ ؕ۟ وَ مَنۡ یُّوۡقَ شُحَّ نَفۡسِہٖ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۹﴾
59:9 And those who made their abode in the City (of Madinah) and in faith before them love those who have fled to them, and find in their hearts no need of what they are given, and prefer (them) before themselves, though poverty may afflict them. And whoever is saved from the greediness of his soul, these it is that are the successful.4
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ جَآءُوۡ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہِمۡ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ رَبَّنَا اغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَ لِاِخۡوَانِنَا الَّذِیۡنَ سَبَقُوۡنَا بِالۡاِیۡمَانِ وَ لَا تَجۡعَلۡ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا رَبَّنَاۤ اِنَّکَ رَءُوۡفٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿٪۱۰﴾
59:10 And those who come after them say: Our Lord, forgive us and our brethren who preceded us in faith, and leave no spite in our hearts towards those who believe. Our Lord, surely You are Kind, Merciful.5
- The Bani Nadir made a treaty with the Holy Prophet to stand neutral between him and his enemies. When he was victorious at Badr, they said that he was the Prophet promised in the Torah, but when the Muslims suffered a loss at Uhud, they repudiated their vow, broke the agreement and tried to make an alliance with the Makkans. The Holy Prophet told the tribe to leave Madinah. They wanted ten days for preparation, but Abdullah ibn Ubayy (the head of the hypocrites) advised them not to leave Madinah but to fight against the Prophet, promising the help of his own men. So they fortified themselves within their strongholds. After having remained besieged for twenty-one days, and having despaired of help from the hypocrites, they surrendered. The Prophet raised the siege on condition that they should depart from Madinah. With the exception of two families that chose to remain at Khaibar, they all went to Syria. The Bani Naḍīr, being granted ten days in which to collect and take with them such of their property as they desired, devoted the time at their disposal to the destruction of their houses, lest they should be a source of strength to the Muslims. What remained of them was demolished by the Muslims. ↩
- This verse relates to property acquired in war without fighting, while 8:41 deals with property acquired through fighting. The whole of the property mentioned here was to be distributed in exactly the same manner as the one-fifth of the kind of acquisitions spoken of in 8:41, i.e. for the benefit of the Muslims in general; see footnote under 8:41. The Prophet’s share out of this (“for Allah and for the Messenger”) was considered part of the public treasury. ↩
- It was only the poor among the refugees, who had lost all their wealth and homes and were still so poor that they could not carry on any business of their own, who received something from what the Bani Nadir left. ↩
- By those who made their abode in the City and in faith are meant the Anṣār or the Helpers, i.e., the Muslim residents of Madinah. The meaning is that they made an abode in the city of the Prophet and the faith; the faith being likened to a place of abode. Before them signifies before their (i.e., the Muhājirīn or Emigrants) coming to Madinah. When the Muslims emigrated from Makkah, the Helpers received them as if they were their brothers, lodging them in their own houses, and many of them were still living in the houses of their benefactors, when the banishment of the Bani Nadir took place. The Helpers were willing that the refugees alone should have a share, and, despite that, they might continue to lodge in their houses. ↩
- This verse contains two directions for all future Muslim generations, namely, to pray for the forgiveness of earlier generations that have passed away before them and to pray for their hearts to be free from all spite towards their living Muslim brethren. ↩