English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)

by Maulana Muhammad Ali

Chapter 60: Al-Mumtahanah — The Woman Tested (Revealed at Madinah: 2 sections, 13 verses)

Section 2 (Verses 60:7–60:13): Friendly Relations with Non-Muslims


عَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّجۡعَلَ بَیۡنَکُمۡ وَ بَیۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ عَادَیۡتُمۡ مِّنۡہُمۡ مَّوَدَّۃً ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ قَدِیۡرٌ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۷﴾

60:7 It may be that Allah will bring about friendship between you and those of them whom you hold as enemies. And Allah is Powerful; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.1

لَا یَنۡہٰىکُمُ اللّٰہُ عَنِ الَّذِیۡنَ لَمۡ یُقَاتِلُوۡکُمۡ فِی الدِّیۡنِ وَ لَمۡ یُخۡرِجُوۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ دِیَارِکُمۡ اَنۡ تَبَرُّوۡہُمۡ وَ تُقۡسِطُوۡۤا اِلَیۡہِمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُقۡسِطِیۡنَ ﴿۸﴾

60:8 Allah does not forbid you, with regard to those who do not fight you for religion, nor drive you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly. Surely Allah loves the doers of justice.2

اِنَّمَا یَنۡہٰىکُمُ اللّٰہُ عَنِ الَّذِیۡنَ قٰتَلُوۡکُمۡ فِی الدِّیۡنِ وَ اَخۡرَجُوۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ دِیَارِکُمۡ وَ ظٰہَرُوۡا عَلٰۤی اِخۡرَاجِکُمۡ اَنۡ تَوَلَّوۡہُمۡ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَوَلَّہُمۡ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾

60:9 Allah forbids you only with regard to those who fight you for religion, and drive you forth from your homes and help (others) in your expulsion, that you make friends of them; and whoever makes friends of them, these are the wrongdoers.

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا جَآءَکُمُ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتُ مُہٰجِرٰتٍ فَامۡتَحِنُوۡہُنَّ ؕ اَللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِاِیۡمَانِہِنَّ ۚ فَاِنۡ عَلِمۡتُمُوۡہُنَّ مُؤۡمِنٰتٍ فَلَا تَرۡجِعُوۡہُنَّ اِلَی الۡکُفَّارِ ؕ لَا ہُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّہُمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یَحِلُّوۡنَ لَہُنَّ ؕ وَ اٰتُوۡہُمۡ مَّاۤ اَنۡفَقُوۡا ؕ وَ لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اَنۡ تَنۡکِحُوۡہُنَّ اِذَاۤ اٰتَیۡتُمُوۡہُنَّ اُجُوۡرَہُنَّ ؕ وَ لَا تُمۡسِکُوۡا بِعِصَمِ الۡکَوَافِرِ وَ سۡـَٔلُوۡا مَاۤ اَنۡفَقۡتُمۡ وَ لۡیَسۡـَٔلُوۡا مَاۤ اَنۡفَقُوۡا ؕ ذٰلِکُمۡ حُکۡمُ اللّٰہِ ؕ یَحۡکُمُ بَیۡنَکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰﴾

60:10 O you who believe, when believing women come to you fleeing, test them. Allah knows best their faith. Then if you know them to be believers, do not send them back to the disbelievers.3 Neither are these women lawful for them, nor are those men lawful for them. And give those men what they have spent (as dowries on these women); and there is no blame on you in marrying them, when you give them their dowries. And do not hold to the ties of marriage of disbelieving women, and ask for what you have spent, and let the disbelievers ask for what they have spent. That is Allah’s judgment; He judges between you.4 And Allah is Knowing, Wise.

وَ اِنۡ فَاتَکُمۡ شَیۡءٌ مِّنۡ اَزۡوَاجِکُمۡ اِلَی الۡکُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبۡتُمۡ فَاٰتُوا الَّذِیۡنَ ذَہَبَتۡ اَزۡوَاجُہُمۡ مِّثۡلَ مَاۤ اَنۡفَقُوۡا ؕ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡتُمۡ بِہٖ مُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾

60:11 And if any part (of the dowries) of your wives has passed away from you to the disbelievers, then your turn comes, give to those whose wives have gone away the like of what they have spent, and keep your duty to Allah in Whom you believe.5

یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّبِیُّ اِذَا جَآءَکَ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتُ یُبَایِعۡنَکَ عَلٰۤی اَنۡ لَّا یُشۡرِکۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ شَیۡئًا وَّ لَا یَسۡرِقۡنَ وَ لَا یَزۡنِیۡنَ وَ لَا یَقۡتُلۡنَ اَوۡلَادَہُنَّ وَ لَا یَاۡتِیۡنَ بِبُہۡتَانٍ یَّفۡتَرِیۡنَہٗ بَیۡنَ اَیۡدِیۡہِنَّ وَ اَرۡجُلِہِنَّ وَ لَا یَعۡصِیۡنَکَ فِیۡ مَعۡرُوۡفٍ فَبَایِعۡہُنَّ وَ اسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَہُنَّ اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۲﴾

60:12 O Prophet, when believing women come to you giving you a pledge that they will not set up any partner with Allah, and will not steal, nor commit adultery; nor kill their children, nor bring a slander which they have forged of themselves, nor disobey you in what is good, accept their pledge, and ask forgiveness for them from Allah. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.6

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَوَلَّوۡا قَوۡمًا غَضِبَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ قَدۡ یَئِسُوۡا مِنَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ کَمَا یَئِسَ الۡکُفَّارُ مِنۡ اَصۡحٰبِ الۡقُبُوۡرِ ﴿٪۱۳﴾

60:13 O you who believe, do not take for friends a people with whom Allah is displeased7 — they indeed despair of the Hereafter, as the disbelievers despair of those in the graves.


  1. This verse makes it clear that the prohibition against friendly relations with the disbelievers was only temporary, to be operative only so long as the war continued. The friendship prophetically referred to here was brought about after the conquest of Makkah.
  2. This verse and the next, revealed at a time when the relations between Muslims and the disbelievers were most strained on account of a continual state of war between the two parties, settle conclusively that friendly relations between Muslims and non-Muslims, as such, are not prohibited. It is in the light of these verses that all the verses forbidding friendly relations with the dis­believers should be read, because here the true principle is revealed in unmistakable language, allowing friendly relations with one class of disbelievers and prohibiting such relations with those of another class.
  3. People continued to embrace Islam at Makkah, although there was now no preacher of the faith there. Bitter persecution often compelled them to flee from their homes. This verse relates to believing women who fled to Madinah under these circumstances. These women were not taken unconditionally; it was necessary that they should be tested. In accordance with this verse, the Holy Prophet obtained the assurance of such women under oath that they had not left their homes except on account of Islam, and for no other motive.
  4. The state of permanent warfare between the Muslims and the disbelievers did not allow of any social relationship to be established between the two parties. Hence marriage relationship between Muslim men and disbelieving women, as well as those between Muslim women and the disbelieving men, could no longer be maintained.
  5. It is a case in which a Muslim husband is allowed to recoup the loss sustained of the dowry of a disbelieving wife who has deserted him, from the sum due for the payment of dowry for a Muslim woman who has fled from the disbelievers and joined the Muslims, or from acquisitions gained in war.
  6. Most of the commentators think that the pledge spoken of in this verse was only taken by the Holy Prophet after the conquest of Makkah, when large numbers of women as well as men embraced Islam.
  7. The reference is to the Jews. (Editor’s Note: Verses 8 and 9 have already made it clear that friendly relations are only disallowed with those who actually fight against Muslims on account of their religion, and are allowed with all others.)