English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 9: Al-Taubah / Al-Baraat — The Immunity (Revealed at Madinah: 16 sections, 129 verses)
Section 2 (Verses 9:7–9:16): Reasons for the Immunity
کَیۡفَ یَکُوۡنُ لِلۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ عَہۡدٌ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ عِنۡدَ رَسُوۡلِہٖۤ اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ عٰہَدۡتُّمۡ عِنۡدَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ ۚ فَمَا اسۡتَقَامُوۡا لَکُمۡ فَاسۡتَقِیۡمُوۡا لَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۷﴾
9:7 How can there be an agreement for the idolaters with Allah and with His Messenger, except those with whom you made an agreement at the Sacred Mosque? So as long as they are true to you, be true to them. Surely Allah loves those who keep their duty.1
کَیۡفَ وَ اِنۡ یَّظۡہَرُوۡا عَلَیۡکُمۡ لَا یَرۡقُبُوۡا فِیۡکُمۡ اِلًّا وَّ لَا ذِمَّۃً ؕ یُرۡضُوۡنَکُمۡ بِاَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ وَ تَاۡبٰی قُلُوۡبُہُمۡ ۚ وَ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ فٰسِقُوۡنَ ۚ﴿۸﴾
9:8 How (can it be)? And if they prevail against you, they respect neither ties of relationship nor covenant in your case. They would please you with their mouths while their hearts refuse; and most of them are transgressors.
اِشۡتَرَوۡا بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ ثَمَنًا قَلِیۡلًا فَصَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِہٖ ؕ اِنَّہُمۡ سَآءَ مَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
9:9 They have taken a small price for the messages of Allah, so they hinder (people) from His way. Surely evil is what they do.
لَا یَرۡقُبُوۡنَ فِیۡ مُؤۡمِنٍ اِلًّا وَّ لَا ذِمَّۃً ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُعۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
9:10 They respect neither ties of relationship nor covenant in the case of a believer. And these are they who go beyond the limits.2
فَاِنۡ تَابُوۡا وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَوُا الزَّکٰوۃَ فَاِخۡوَانُکُمۡ فِی الدِّیۡنِ ؕ وَ نُفَصِّلُ الۡاٰیٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾
9:11 But if they repent and keep up prayer and give the due charity, they are your brethren in faith. And We make the messages clear for a people who know.
وَ اِنۡ نَّکَثُوۡۤا اَیۡمَانَہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ عَہۡدِہِمۡ وَ طَعَنُوۡا فِیۡ دِیۡنِکُمۡ فَقَاتِلُوۡۤا اَئِمَّۃَ الۡکُفۡرِ ۙ اِنَّہُمۡ لَاۤ اَیۡمَانَ لَہُمۡ لَعَلَّہُمۡ یَنۡتَہُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲﴾
9:12 And if they break their oaths after their agreement and revile your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief — surely their oaths are nothing — so that they may cease.3
اَلَا تُقَاتِلُوۡنَ قَوۡمًا نَّکَثُوۡۤا اَیۡمَانَہُمۡ وَ ہَمُّوۡا بِاِخۡرَاجِ الرَّسُوۡلِ وَ ہُمۡ بَدَءُوۡکُمۡ اَوَّلَ مَرَّۃٍ ؕ اَتَخۡشَوۡنَہُمۡ ۚ فَاللّٰہُ اَحَقُّ اَنۡ تَخۡشَوۡہُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳﴾
9:13 Will you not fight a people who broke their oaths and aimed at the expulsion of the Messenger, and they attacked you first?4 Do you fear them? But Allah has more right that you should fear Him, if you are believers.
قَاتِلُوۡہُمۡ یُعَذِّبۡہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِاَیۡدِیۡکُمۡ وَ یُخۡزِہِمۡ وَ یَنۡصُرۡکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ یَشۡفِ صُدُوۡرَ قَوۡمٍ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۱۴﴾
9:14 Fight them; Allah will punish them at your hands and bring them to disgrace, and assist you against them and relieve the hearts of a believing people,
وَ یُذۡہِبۡ غَیۡظَ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ ؕ وَ یَتُوۡبُ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۵﴾
9:15 and remove the rage of their hearts. And Allah turns (mercifully) to whom He pleases. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.
اَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ اَنۡ تُتۡرَکُوۡا وَ لَمَّا یَعۡلَمِ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ جٰہَدُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ وَ لَمۡ یَتَّخِذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ لَا الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَلِیۡجَۃً ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۱۶﴾
9:16 Do you think that you would be left alone while Allah has not yet known those of you who struggle hard and do not take anyone as an intimate friend besides Allah and His Messenger and the believers? And Allah is Aware of what you do.
- So long as the idolaters were true to their agreements, Muslims were required to be true to them. Just as in the case of war, Muslims were not allowed to fight until the enemy had first attacked, so, in the case of repudiation of agreements, it was the enemy who first repudiated the agreement. ↩
- Note the repeated assertions of the Quran that the disbelievers were not to be fought against for their disbelief but for their being first in starting war or repudiating agreements. ↩
- Those leaders of disbelief are to be fought against who break their oaths after their agreements. ↩
- Editor’s Note: This again makes clear that Muslims are only required to fight those who attacked them first. ↩