English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)

by Maulana Muhammad Ali

Chapter 9: Al-Taubah / Al-Baraat — The Immunity (Revealed at Madinah: 16 sections, 129 verses)

Section 4 (Verses 9:25–9:29): Islam made Triumphant in Arabia

Translation:

لَقَدۡ نَصَرَکُمُ اللّٰہُ فِیۡ مَوَاطِنَ کَثِیۡرَۃٍ ۙ وَّ یَوۡمَ حُنَیۡنٍ ۙ اِذۡ اَعۡجَبَتۡکُمۡ کَثۡرَتُکُمۡ فَلَمۡ تُغۡنِ عَنۡکُمۡ شَیۡئًا وَّ ضَاقَتۡ عَلَیۡکُمُ الۡاَرۡضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتۡ ثُمَّ وَلَّیۡتُمۡ مُّدۡبِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۲۵﴾

9:25 Certainly Allah helped you in many battlefields, and on the day of Hunain, when your great numbers made you proud, but they availed you nothing, and the earth with all its vastness was narrowed for you, then you turned back retreating.1

ثُمَّ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ سَکِیۡنَتَہٗ عَلٰی رَسُوۡلِہٖ وَ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ اَنۡزَلَ جُنُوۡدًا لَّمۡ تَرَوۡہَا وَ عَذَّبَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ؕ وَ ذٰلِکَ جَزَآءُ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۶﴾

9:26 Then Allah sent down His calm upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and sent armies which you did not see, and punished those who disbelieved. And such is the reward of the disbelievers.

ثُمَّ یَتُوۡبُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۷﴾

9:27 Then will Allah, after this, turn mercifully to whom He pleases. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا الۡمُشۡرِکُوۡنَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا یَقۡرَبُوا الۡمَسۡجِدَ الۡحَرَامَ بَعۡدَ عَامِہِمۡ ہٰذَا ۚ وَ اِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ عَیۡلَۃً فَسَوۡفَ یُغۡنِیۡکُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖۤ اِنۡ شَآءَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۸﴾

9:28 O you who believe, the idolaters are surely unclean,2 so they shall not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year of theirs.3 And if you fear poverty, then Allah will enrich you out of His grace, if He please.4 Surely Allah is Knowing, Wise.

قَاتِلُوا الَّذِیۡنَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ لَا بِالۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ لَا یُحَرِّمُوۡنَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ وَ لَا یَدِیۡنُوۡنَ دِیۡنَ الۡحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ حَتّٰی یُعۡطُوا الۡجِزۡیَۃَ عَنۡ ‌یَّدٍ وَّ ہُمۡ صٰغِرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۲۹﴾

9:29 Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden, nor follow the Religion of Truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgement of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.5

Commentary:

  1. The battle of Hunain, fought in 8 A.H. in the valley of Hunain, about three miles from Makkah, differed from the other battles in that the Muslims here outnumbered the enemy. However, the archers of the enemy were good marks­men, and had occupied strong positions in the mountain passes. The Muslim army contained some men from Makkah still adhering to idolatry. Unfortunately this was the advance party of the army, and, unable to face the archers, they retreated causing disorder to the whole army. The Holy Prophet, however, led the assault, at first alone, in face of the archers, but was soon joined by others and a victory was obtained, as the next verse shows.
  2. Because they indulged in evil practices and went naked round the Ka‘bah. Compare 5:90, where idols are declared to be unclean.
  3. The year of the proclamation, i.e. 9 A.H.
  4. The importance of Makkah as a commercial centre lay in the fact that the whole of Arabia repaired to it in the season of the pilgrimage, and there carried out important commercial transactions. The prohibition referred to in the first part of the verse could have been easily foreseen as affecting the commerce, and consequently the prosperity of Makkah, but worldly or business considera­tions never interfered with the carrying out of the moral reforms of Islam.
  5. The great Christian power, the Roman Empire, had just mobilized its forces for the subjection of the new religion, and the Tabūk expedition took place, which is dealt with further on in this chapter. As the object of this Christian power was simply the subjection of the Muslims, their final defeat by the Muslims is spoken of as subjection. It was not in any way the object of the Quran to bring the Christians into subjection. On the other hand, the Christians first moved them­selves to bring Muslim Arabia under subjection. The jizyah or tax spoken of here is, according to Lane’s Lexicon, the tax that is taken from the free non-Muslim subjects of the Muslim Government whereby they ratify the compact that ensures them protection. The permission to fight given to Muslims is subject to the condition that the enemy should first take up the sword (2:190). The Holy Prophet never over­stepped this limit, nor did his followers. He fought against the Arabs when they took up the sword to destroy the Muslims, and he led an expedition against the Christians when the Roman Empire first mobilized its forces with the object of subjugating the Muslims. When he found that the enemy had not yet taken the ini­tiative, he did not attack the Roman Empire, but returned without fighting. Later on, however, the Roman Empire, like the Persians, fomented trouble against the newly established Muslim Kingdom, as a result of which both these empires came into conflict with the Muslims and, despite the fact that both the Persians and the Romans were very powerful nations with unlimited resources and strong military organizations, and that they both tried at the same time to subjugate Islam, the result was what is predicted here in clear words — they were both redu­ced to a state of subjection by an insignificant nation like the Arabs.

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