English Translation and Commentary of the Holy Quran (2010)
by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Chapter 9: Al-Taubah / Al-Baraat — The Immunity (Revealed at Madinah: 16 sections, 129 verses)
Section 5 (Verses 9:30–9:37): Islam will Triumph in the World
وَ قَالَتِ الۡیَہُوۡدُ عُزَیۡرُۨ ابۡنُ اللّٰہِ وَ قَالَتِ النَّصٰرَی الۡمَسِیۡحُ ابۡنُ اللّٰہِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ قَوۡلُہُمۡ بِاَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ ۚ یُضَاہِـُٔوۡنَ قَوۡلَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ؕ قٰتَلَہُمُ اللّٰہُ ۚ۫ اَنّٰی یُؤۡفَکُوۡنَ ﴿۳۰﴾
9:30 And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah; and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah.1 These are the words of their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved before.2 Allah’s curse be on them! How they are turned away (from truth)!
اِتَّخَذُوۡۤا اَحۡبَارَہُمۡ وَ رُہۡبَانَہُمۡ اَرۡبَابًا مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ الۡمَسِیۡحَ ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ ۚ وَ مَاۤ اُمِرُوۡۤا اِلَّا لِیَعۡبُدُوۡۤا اِلٰـہًا وَّاحِدًا ۚ لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ سُبۡحٰنَہٗ عَمَّا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۳۱﴾
9:31 They take their doctors of law and their monks for lords besides Allah,3 and (also) the Messiah, son of Mary. And they were enjoined that they should serve one God only — there is no god but He. Glory be to Him from what they set up as partners (with Him)!
یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یُّطۡفِـُٔوۡا نُوۡرَ اللّٰہِ بِاَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ وَ یَاۡبَی اللّٰہُ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یُّتِمَّ نُوۡرَہٗ وَ لَوۡ کَرِہَ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ﴿۳۲﴾
9:32 They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will allow nothing except the perfection of His light, though the disbelievers are averse.4
ہُوَ الَّذِیۡۤ اَرۡسَلَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ بِالۡہُدٰی وَ دِیۡنِ الۡحَقِّ لِیُظۡہِرَہٗ عَلَی الدِّیۡنِ کُلِّہٖ ۙ وَ لَوۡ کَرِہَ الۡمُشۡرِکُوۡنَ ﴿۳۳﴾
9:33 He it is Who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the Religion of Truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though those who set up partners (with Allah) are averse.5
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنَّ کَثِیۡرًا مِّنَ الۡاَحۡبَارِ وَ الرُّہۡبَانِ لَیَاۡکُلُوۡنَ اَمۡوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالۡبَاطِلِ وَ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَکۡنِزُوۡنَ الذَّہَبَ وَ الۡفِضَّۃَ وَ لَا یُنۡفِقُوۡنَہَا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ۙ فَبَشِّرۡہُمۡ بِعَذَابٍ اَلِیۡمٍ ﴿ۙ۳۴﴾
9:34 O you who believe, surely many of the doctors of law and monks eat away people’s property falsely, and hinder (them) from Allah’s way. And those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah’s way — announce to them a painful punishment,
یَّوۡمَ یُحۡمٰی عَلَیۡہَا فِیۡ نَارِ جَہَنَّمَ فَتُکۡوٰی بِہَا جِبَاہُہُمۡ وَ جُنُوۡبُہُمۡ وَ ظُہُوۡرُہُمۡ ؕ ہٰذَا مَا کَنَزۡتُمۡ لِاَنۡفُسِکُمۡ فَذُوۡقُوۡا مَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَکۡنِزُوۡنَ ﴿۳۵﴾
9:35 on the day when it will be heated in the Fire of hell, then their foreheads and their sides and their backs will be branded with it: This is what you hoarded up for yourselves, so taste what you used to hoard.6
اِنَّ عِدَّۃَ الشُّہُوۡرِ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ اثۡنَا عَشَرَ شَہۡرًا فِیۡ کِتٰبِ اللّٰہِ یَوۡمَ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ مِنۡہَاۤ اَرۡبَعَۃٌ حُرُمٌ ؕ ذٰلِکَ الدِّیۡنُ الۡقَیِّمُ ۬ۙ فَلَا تَظۡلِمُوۡا فِیۡہِنَّ اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ وَ قَاتِلُوا الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ کَآفَّۃً کَمَا یُقَاتِلُوۡنَکُمۡ کَآفَّۃً ؕ وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۳۶﴾
9:36 Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months by Allah’s ordinance, since the day when He created the heavens and the earth — of these four are sacred. That is the right religion; so do not wrong yourselves in regard to them.7 And fight the idolaters all together as they fight you all together.8 And know that Allah is with those who keep their duty.
اِنَّمَا النَّسِیۡٓءُ زِیَادَۃٌ فِی الۡکُفۡرِ یُضَلُّ بِہِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا یُحِلُّوۡنَہٗ عَامًا وَّ یُحَرِّمُوۡنَہٗ عَامًا لِّیُوَاطِـُٔوۡا عِدَّۃَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ فَیُحِلُّوۡا مَا حَرَّمَ اللّٰہُ ؕ زُیِّنَ لَہُمۡ سُوۡٓءُ اَعۡمَالِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿٪۳۷﴾
9:37 Postponing (of the sacred month) is only an addition in disbelief, by which those who disbelieve are led astray. They allow it one year and forbid it (another) year, that they may agree in the number (of months) which Allah has made sacred, and thus make lawful what Allah has forbidden.9 The evil of their doings is made to seem good to them. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.
- It has been shown by Muslim historians that there was a sect among the Jews who raised Ezra to the dignity of godhead or son of God. The Quran never blames the Jewish nation as a whole for entertaining this belief. However, the word son in case of Ezra may have been used here freely as meaning a special favourite, in the same way as elsewhere the Quran says of the Jews and the Christians that they call themselves the sons of Allah and His beloved ones (5:18). ↩
- We are here told that the Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ was the son of God was borrowed from earlier pagan people. Recent research has established the fact beyond all doubt. In fact, when St. Paul saw that the Jews would on no account accept Jesus Christ as a messenger of God, he introduced the pagan doctrine of sonship of God into the Christian religion, so that it might become more acceptable to the pagans. ↩
- This does not mean that they took them actually for gods; the meaning is that they followed them blindly in what they enjoined and what they forbade, attaching to them a Divine dignity. Muslims who accord a similar position to their ulama, spiritual leaders or saints are guilty of the same error. ↩
- This is a prophecy of the ultimate triumph of Islam in face of severe opposition. All opposition to truth, whether based on force or propaganda, is here compared with putting out the Divine light by blowing with the mouth to show that all such attempts would prove futile. The Divine light will be made perfect, by which is meant the triumph of Islam, as the next verse states clearly. ↩
- The prophecy of the ultimate triumph of Islam in the whole world is repeated three times in the Quran, in exactly the same words — here and in 48:28 and 61:9. In Arabia itself, Islam became triumphant in the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. After his death, the first century of the Muslim era saw vast Christian communities swelling the ranks of Islam, in Egypt, North Africa, Asia Minor, Persia and Central Asia. More amazing was the fact that Islam, coming in contact with other great religions, with Zoroastrianism in Persia, with Buddhism and Hinduism in India and Afghanistan, and with Confucianism in China, conquered the hearts of the followers of every religion and they accepted the message of Truth in vast numbers. And the final manifestation of this great prophecy is foreshadowed in the gradual acceptance of the principles of Islam in the whole world today, despite the fact that the political power of Islam is at its lowest ebb. ↩
- The punishment of an evil is spoken of throughout the Quran as similar to the evil. Even in this world, a man feels a torment similar to the nature of the evil in which he indulges. Being branded with the hoarded wealth is thus a fit description of the punishment of the hoarders. ↩
- The allusion here is to the Arab practice of postponing the pilgrimage to a month other than that in which it fell, for which see the next verse. ↩
- Fighting was prohibited in the sacred months (2:217). Excepting this, the Muslims were told to fight with the idolaters as the idolaters fought with them, i.e. since all idolaters united in fighting with the Muslims, the latter, too, should unite in fighting with them. ↩
- The reference here is to the practice of postponing observance of the sacred month, thus allowing an ordinary month to be observed as sacred and a sacred month to be treated as ordinary. This practice interfered with the security of life which was guaranteed in the sacred months, and is, therefore, denounced. ↩